The emerging automotive design software standard known as AUTOSAR (Automotive Open System Architecture) began as the product of an industry-wide effort among European auto makers and their suppliers. Its objectives are similar to those of software standards in other industries: to bring structure, clean interfaces and implicit methodologies to a process—in this case, the design of distributed systems within automobiles. FlexRay™ is a serial bus communication standard that has evolved over roughly the same time span as AUTOSAR. FlexRay came into existence as a solution for the shortcomings of the prevailing automotive bus standards, particularly the CAN protocol. Like AUTOSAR, FlexRay counts many prominent automotive OEMs and suppliers among its advocates. Boasting much higher performance (in every respect) than other in-vehicle buses, FlexRay alone is suited for “x-by-wire” applications that must deliver absolutely predictable results for steering, braking, and so forth.